During the winter of 2018 and 2019 The Ecology Consultancy have been carrying out wintering bird surveys at the Lee Valley. This work forms part of a Habitat Regulations Assessment we are conducting for a major rail infrastructure project.The Lee Valley is a 20km long stretch of wetlands and reservoirs to the north-east of London. It is designated as both a Ramsar site* and as a Special Protection Area (SPA) under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. Under the Directive, Member States have a duty to protect and improve habitat for wild birds. The SPA designation was put in place due to the populations of gadwall Anas strepera and shoveler Anas clypeata that spend the winter in the Lee Valley and are of European significance. Reedbed areas also support significant numbers of wintering bittern Botaurus stellaris. There are also nationally important wintering populations of smew Mergellus albellus and water rail Rallus aquaticus that led to the Valley’s Ramsar designation.